IP Ratings of DC Motors
The IP Code of a product is a two-digit number that rates how well the enclosure is protected from the ingression of solid objects and liquids. The first digit relates to the level of protection from solids and the second digit relates to liquids.
For protection against solids, there are 7 different categories, split by the size of the object that cannot enter the enclosure. The first level is 0, meaning there is no protection. Level 1 states a protection from objects larger than 50mm. The maximum level of protection is Level 6 which classifies the product as dust-tight.
|Level||Protect from objects…||Examples|
|IP1X||larger than 50mm||Your hand (not fingers), almost no electronic components|
|IP2X||larger than 12.5mm||Larger fingers/thumbs,|
|IP3X||larger than 2.5mm||Thick wires, soldering irons, larger capacitors, resistors, chips|
|IP4X||larger than 1mm||Thinner wires, screws, most electronics chips / discrete components|
|IP5X||Dust protected||No physical objects, dust may enter but won’t affect performance|
|IP6X||Dust-tight||Dust won’t enter at all|
Water is used to test liquid ingression. The categories range from 0 to 8, with the tests increasing in water volume and pressure.
|Level||Protect from objects…||Examples|
|IPX1||Dripping water||Vertically falling drops, 10 min test equivalent to 1mm rainfall per minute|
|IPX2||Dripping water with unit at 15° angle||Vertically falling drops, 10 min test equivalent to 3mm rainfall per minute|
|IPX3||Spraying water (any angle up to 60°)||5 minute test at 0.7 liters / min and 80 – 100 kPa|
|IPX4||Splashing of water||5 minute test at 10 litres/ min and 80 – 100 kPa|
|IPX5||Water jets (distance of 3m)||3 minute test at 12.5 litres/ min and 30 kPa|
|IPX6||Powerful water jets (distance of 3m)||3 minute test at 100 litres/ min and 100 kPa|
|IPX7||Immersion up to 1m||Measured to bottom of the product, minimum of 15cm depth to the top of the product|
|IPX8||Immersion beyond 1m||Continuous immersion at a specified depth|
It is worth noting that even with a rating of IPX8 liquid may still enter, as long as it does not affect the performance.
Protection From Solids
While we do not state the IP rating for our products, from visual inspection we can see that all of our motors have a minimum rating of IP10 – 50mm is bigger than any motor case in our product line!
Also, our smallest motors are only 3.2mm in diameter, with the only possible entry points being the gap between the shaft and casing or at the rear between the casing and end cap. This would be IP4X and possibly even IP5X or IP6X.
However, for vibration motors and gearmotors, it is not solids entering the casing that is the biggest issue. It’s ensuring that the shaft and load (e.g. the eccentric mass) have enough space to freely rotate – which is not a concern of the IP code.
Protection From Liquids
We commonly question on two topics:
As we have not tested the motors for liquid ingression we cannot state the motors are waterproof. If you are interested in this topic we recommend reading our Application Bulletin on over moulding encapsulated motors.
The easiest method for waterproofing a motor is to mount it inside an existing waterproof unit.
Post solder wash for SMT vibration motors
We have not received feedback from customers whose motors have failed following a post solder wash. However, we recommend either soldering the motor after the wash or testing a small quantity before ramping up for large volumes.
Given the information above, it is important to be careful when using adhesives to mount the motor. We have spoken in the past about using low-blooming glues, and we also mention it in Application Bulletins 6 (mounting to PCBs) and 7 (mounting to bulkheads).
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